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Showing content with the highest reputation on 06/07/15 in all areas

  1. As I'm sure you're aware, lightning bolts can display a wide variety of colours ranging from lilac, white and blue, to even more exotic colours like yellow, orange and even green. There are many causes for this wide variety of colours. This ranges from the temperature of the lightning to atmospheric and environmental conditions, as mentioned below: Lilac/purple lightning Lilac or purple-tinted lightning is usually the most commonly observed colour. It is often caused by precipitation, so the observation of it most likely means that the thunderstorm generating it will be a high-precipitation storm. Lilac lightning is also rumoured to produce louder thunder, though this is disputed. Blue lightning Blue lightning bolts tend to be the hottest lightning bolts to occur on earth. They are also some of the more commonly observed colours (after lilac lightning). Atmospheric-wise, they maybe caused by small amounts of dust in the atmosphere. This is because these dust particles scatter the light coming from the lightning, in a similar way to how molecules in the atmosphere scatter the sun's light, making the sky also look blue. White lightning The light radiated by virtually all lightning bolts is white. This means that to observe it, the air must be free of pollutants and dust which can scatter and refract light - so essentially you're seeing the lightning with very little interference from the atmosphere. White lightning is also the some of the hottest lightning that occurs on earth (after blue lightning). Yellow lightning Yellow lightning bolts are much more uncommon and tend to be cooler than blue, white and lilac lightning bolts are. They also tend to be indicative of dry thunderstorms, so the presence of yellow-tinted lightning could mean that an approaching thunderstorm is a low-precipitation storm. Other colours Other colours of lightning have also been reported. Orange and red lightning has been observed and these bolts tend to be some of the coldest lightning. These colours also tend to be observed near the base of the lightning, as it strikes the ground. Green-tinted lightning is also occasionally seen, and this may be caused by the lightning heating up certain gases in the air, giving it a greenish tint. Well that was a bit of fulminology for you there. I hope you stuck with it, and thanks for reading.
    2 points
  2. On July 1st 2015, the World Data Center SILSO will lay an unprecedented milestone in the long history of the Sunspot Number. By its longevity, this reference sunspot record remains our unique direct reference retracing solar activity over more than 4 centuries and it is definitely the most widely used solar data set (more than 100 publications per year). However, this series was left unchanged since its creation by Rudolph Wolf in 1849, without any backward verification. The only innovation came in 1998 with the creation of a new similar sunspot index, the Group Number (Hoyt and Schatten 1998). However, the two parallel series showed strong differences hinting at strong inhomogeneities in either series or both. Since 2011, a group of 40 experts finally undertook a full revision of those two series in order to identify and fix the defects. This huge work was co-organized by E. Cliver (NSO, Sacramento Peak Observatory), F. Clette (WDC-SILSO, STCE) and L. Svalgaard (Stanford University) around four successive workshops (one of them held at the Royal Observatory in Brussels in 2012. Now finally, all corrections have been finalized (for a recent synthesis, see Clette et al. 2014, Space Science Reviews). Over the last few months, all corrections obtained separately, often by different scientists, were finally assembled into a final end-to-end reconstruction of the Sunspot and Group Numbers. The figure below illustrates the change between the original and new Sunspot Number series. The most notable correction is a lowering by about 18% of all numbers after 1947, to remove the bias produced by a new counting method started in 1947 in Zürich. A large variable drift affecting the "Brussels-Locarno" Sunspot Number since 1981 has also been eliminated. Note that for the new Sunspot Number, the 0.6 conventional Zürich factor is not used anymore, which raises significantly the scale of the entire series. This simply reflects the choice of modern counts by A. Wolfer, Wolf's successor, as new reference. The new numbers thus now match much more closely the raw Wolf numbers obtained by all observers since 1993 until today. More here.. http://www.sidc.oma.be/press/01/welcome.html
    2 points
  3. Taken on Beverley Westwood on 5 July 2015. There was an approaching squall line made up of numerous cells stretched from NW to SE and there was lightning coming out of four of them that I could see. This cloud connected two cells, this is the northern most of the two.

    © K Sheehan 2015

    1 point
  4. Not to forget when Andrew Ball was carrying the Olympic torch In Saltash, and also the flag of Cornwall along with the torch on his journey to England, the flag was unceremoniously ripped from his hand by one of his Metropolitan stormtrooper escorts. A dastardly action that warranted immediate confinement in Launceston castle.
    1 point
  5. This happened last year, '37c' but when sudden cold arctic air comes down from the north this happens http://siberiantimes.com/other/others/news/freak-hail-storm-hits-siberian-beach-in-mid-summer-extraordinary-pictures/
    1 point
  6. Not too often I agree with you but this is certainly the case here. I'm not aware of any law that prohibits waving, or carrying, any flag about. He might well be the complete prize Pratt but we still live in a free country for the time being so he has the right. Just as we have the right to call him the twonk that he is.
    1 point
  7. Could this deliver the 1%+ needed? #Colonialism EDIT Here we go:
    1 point
  8. Since when did draping oneself on a piece of cloth become treason? What, then, would he be charged with - being a pillock in a public place? IMO, he has the right to freedom-of-expression; I have the right to ridicule him, in response...
    1 point
  9. Slowly giving up with this country.. "Police have been criticised after they failed to arrest a man who was spotted near Big Ben draped in an Islamic State flag. The man was photographed walking past a group of Scouts outside the Houses of Parliament in London wearing a large ISIS flag on his back. He was also carrying a child on his shoulders, who was waving a smaller flag. "The act was considered in particularly bad taste, given that it occurred just days before the anniversary of the 7/7 London bombings, and just one week after the beach shooting in Tunisia which killed 30 British tourists." He should be prosecuted for Treason and even better deported to his 'friends' and then he'll see how he likes it.
    1 point
  10. lol, some pretty girls there knocker !!!...
    1 point
  11. Alarm went off at 5:05 and the sun wasn't in my eyes - we seem to have lost 10-15mins in the morning already
    1 point
  12. Look no further. http://www.express.co.uk/news/uk/589024/North-south-divide-but-a-new-scorcher-is-on-the-way
    1 point
  13. We are really 'all in this together', Scots, Angles, Welshmen and Irishmen: we are all being routinely sh*t-on by our lords and masters.
    1 point
  14. looking westwards from my back garden very dark clouds,seen lighting and heard distant thunder all moving eastwards
    1 point
  15. Update for the week to July 4th The current 5 day mean is on 9,860,000km2 while the 1 day extent is at 9,726,000km2. The daily anomaly (compared to 81-10) is at -788,180km2, a decrease from -831,290km2 last week. The anomaly compared to the 07, 11 and 12 average is at +618,200km2, an increase from +299,000km2 last week. We're currently 8th lowest on record, down from 7th last week. The average daily change over the last 7 days was -79.0k/day, compared to the long term average of -85.2k/day, and the 07, 11 and 12 average of -124.6k/day. The average long term change over the next week is -80.5k/day, with the 07, 11, and 12 average being -115.8k/day. The loss so far this July is the 8th smallest on record. To achieve the largest monthly drop, a daily loss of at least 121.2k/day is required, while the smallest drop requires a loss of less than 65.4k/day and an average drop requires a loss of 89.7k/day. The loss in June was the 18th smallest on record, while the average extent was the 4th smallest on record.
    1 point
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