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Smothering Ash Cloud from Sinabung Volcano

 

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The prolonged eruption of Sinabung Volcano is disrupting the lives of the tens of thousands of Indonesians living nearby. In the photo below (©2014 Richard Roscoe), notice the ash coating roofs, leaves, and all other surfaces in this village southeast of the volcano. Read more at 
http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/NaturalHazards/view.php?id=82990&src=fb

See more of Roscoe's photography of the Sinabung eruption at 
http://www.photovolcanica.com/VolcanoInfo/Sinabung/Sinabung.html

Read more about Sinabung from the Global Volcanism Program at 
http://www.volcano.si.edu/volcano.cfm?vn=261080

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Webcam for Popocatepetl.   http://www.webcamsdemexico.com/webcam-popocatepetl.html    

Has this been posted before, happened on the 29th August, Mount Tavurvur  Papua New Guinea    Amazing.

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Large Magma Chamber Sits Below World’s Most Active Volcano
 

University of Miami (UM) Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science researchers have discovered a large magma chamber below the world’s most active volcano.
The new discovery is the first geophysical observation that large magma chambers exist in the deeper parts of Kilauea. For the study, the team analyzed the seismic waves that travel through the volcano. This methodology allowed them to look at the internal structure of the volcanic system, leading them to find the chamber about 5 to 6.8 miles below the Earth’s surface.
Researchers used the seismic data to develop a 3D velocity model of a magma anomaly to determine the size, depth and composition of the chamber.
“It was known before that Kilauea had small, shallow magma chambers,†Gouging Lin, UM Rosenstiel School assistant professor of geology and geophysics and lead author of the study, said in a statement. “This study is the first geophysical observation that large magma chambers exist in the deep oceanic crust below.â€
The study revealed the magma chamber is composed of 10-percent magma and 90-percent rock. The magma reservoir below Kilauea is similar to those seen beneath volcanoes located at mid-ocean ridges.
“This reservoir could have supplied the magma that intruded into the deep section of the east rift zone and caused its rapid expansion following the 1975 M7.2 Kalapana earthquake,†the scientists wrote in the journal Geology.
“Understanding these magma bodies are a high priority because of the hazard posed by the volcano,†Falk Amelung, co-author and professor of geology and geophysics at the UM Rosenstiel School, said in a statement. “Kilauea volcano produces many small earthquakes and paying particular attention to new seismic activity near this body will help us to better understand where future lava eruptions will come from.â€
Kilauea has been in continuous eruption for more than 30 years, making it the most active volcano in the world. Research in 2006 revealed that not only is it the most active, it is also a big air polluter. Scientists say that the volcano has been sending an average of 1,000 metric tons of sulfur dioxide into the atmosphere each day since it first began erupting on January 3, 1983. This is 6,000 times the amount emitted by a major industrial polluter on the mainland.


Large Magma Chamber Sits Below World’s Most Active Volcano
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Volcanoes Today, 30 Jan 2014: Sinabung, Dukono, Aso, Etna

Thursday Jan 30, 2014 14:03 PM |
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Thermal image of the lava flow (Monte Cagliato webcam, INGV Catania)
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Ash emission from Aso volcano this morning (JMA webcam)
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The lava flow from Sinabung has reached the base of the mountain
 

Etna (Sicily, Italy): The recent eruptive episode, which could be called a mainly effusive paroxysm, seem to have more or less ended. Activity if still present (weak explosions at the NSEC and lava effusion from the fissure vent at its base) has decreased a lot. Visibility and weather are bad at the moment to have a more detailed picture.

Aso (Kyushu): (29 Jan) Weak ash emissions occurred this morning.

Sinabung (Sumatra, Indonesia): Lava effusion continues at the volcano and pyroclastic flows occurred this morning. During the past 7-10 days, the growing lava dome has effused an impressive thick extrusion lobe that managed to form a massive, approx. 800 m long coherent lava flow reaching the base of the mountain.
The sticky lava flow followed and almost completely filled the deep ravine on the SE side of the volcano which before channeled the rockfalls and pyroclastic flows.

However, this steep, blocky lava flow is highly unstable. Collapsing material from the flow still generates frequent rock avalanches and sometimes pyroclastic flows, although the latter ones have been significantly smaller in size than those during late Dec until mid January.
This suggests that the arriving magma is already more degassed and less prone to fragmentation, i.e. explosive activity and pyroclastic flows.

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Volcanic Activity in Guatemala Prompts Evacuations

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The Pacaya volcano in Guatemala is oozing more lava than normal after volcanic activity increased last week, forcing some evacuations and closing the area off to tourism. (Photo : Carlos Urrutia / Flickr)

A volcanic eruption last week in the Central American nation of Guatemala is forcing nearby evacuations and has closed the area off to tourism according to reports from AP sources in the area. The volcano is located just south of Guatemala City.

 

The Pacaya volcano has begun a constant lava flow down one side of the mountain that has caused the removal of some local residents. There have also been intermittent explosions and clouds of ash being tossed into the air.

The activity of the volcano is described as "mildly explosive and effusive (Strombolian activity, lava fountaining, lava flows from the summit crater)," according to Volcano Discovery. "Near continuously active the least during the past centuries."

 

http://www.latinopost.com/articles/3618/20140130/volcanic-activity-in-guatemala-prompts-evacuations.htm

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Yellowstone National Park's Giantess Geyser is erupting for the first time in two-and-a-half years, park rangers said today.

The usually quiet geyser is shooting off bursts of water that reach 50 feet (15 meters) into the air, said Annie Carlson, the supervisory park ranger at the Old Faithful Visitor Education Center. Giantess Geyser is nearby the more famous Old Faithful, but it is far less regular.

"We don't know when it will stop, and we don't know when it will go again in the future," Carlson told Live Science's Our Amazing Planet. [The Wild Geology of Yellowstone (Infographic)]

 

There are more than 500 geysers in Yellowstone. Geysers occur when geothermally heated water gets trapped and pressurized in underground hot springs. The recurrence rate of geyser eruptions varies wildly. Old Faithful erupts, on average, every 92 minutes, according to the National Park Service, though the exact timing varies between every 35 minutes and every 120 minutes. It shoots water 90 to 184 feet (27-55 m) into the air.

Yellowstone also boasts the world's tallest active geyser, the Steamboat Geyser. It has a major eruption only rarely, but when it does, the water rises as high as 300 feet (90 m).

Giantess is another infrequent erupter. It averages two to three episodes per year, with as many as 41 per year in the 1980s, Carlson said, but in recent years has slowed down, perhaps as a result of small earthquakes that continuously rearrange the underground plumbing of the park's geysers. The last time Giantess erupted was Sept. 13, 2011.

 

http://www.livescience.com/42992-yellowstone-giantess-geyser-erupts.html

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On June 12, 2009, the International Space Station happened to be passing over the Sarychev Volcano just as it was beginning to erupt. This striking image was taken by an astronaut and captures the early stage of Sarychev's eruption.

Sarychev Peak is located on Matua Island in the northern part of the Kuril Islands, a Russian archipelago in the northwest Pacific Ocean. The volcano, one of the most active volcanoes in the Kuril Island chain, erupted in 1989, 1986, 1976 and 1946.

 

http://www.livescience.com/42979-astronaut-captures-photo-of-sarychev-volcanic-eruption.html

 

watch video on link supplied

 

brilliant images on there

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Volcano Eruption in Ecuador on Thursday, 30 January, 2014 at 23:14 (11:14 PM) UTC.

 

A new eruptive phase has begun at the volcano. Since the early morning today, the seismic network detected an increase in earthquakes including signals of small explosions and long-period events and tremor typical for internal fluid movements (gasses and magma). The Tungurahua volcano Observatory while unable to make direct visual observations received reports from observers that fine black ash fell in Pungal and Penipe, and minor amounts in Palictahua. The black color of the ash suggests that it originates from fresh (so called juvenile) magma. The last eruptive phase of Tungurahua was between 6 Oct and 13 Nov past year and consisted in strombolian-vulcanian explosions generating ash columns rising up to 4 km, accompanied by strong shock waves and producing occasional pyroclastic flows. Bursts of moderate to strong intensity tremor characterized seismic activity during that period. Since 13 Nov, activity had decreased markedly and the volcano only showed weak degassing and no signs that could have been interpreted as precursors to the current new activity, IGPEN mentions in its latest bulletin. This implies that the magma that started the current new phase of activity has risen very quickly from a deeper reservoir into the shallow plumbing system of the volcano. In other words, eruptions at Tungurahua can start with little or even no warning.

 

http://hisz.rsoe.hu/alertmap/site/?pageid=event_desc&edis_id=VE-20140130-42508-ECU

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The Alaska Volcano Observatory is raising the Aviation Color Code to YELLOW and the Alert Level to ADVISORY at Shishaldin Volcano based on satellite observations over the past day of increased surface temperatures in the summit crater, as well as increased emissions of steam observed yesterday in satellite and web camera images. These observations represent a departure from normal background activity at Shishaldin, but do not necessarily indicate that an eruption will occur. Similar levels of unrest were last noted during 2009, and did not result in an eruption. Shishaldin is monitored by a local seismic network, satellite data, web camera, telemetered geodetic network, and distant infrasound networks. Seismic monitoring of Shishaldin is significantly impaired due to equipment failures of seismic stations close to the volcano. We hope to be able to detect significant explosive activity (should it occur) using remaining functioning seismic stations in the region, satellite, and distant infrasound networks. AVO will continue to watch Shishaldin carefully for additional signs of increased unrest. Shishaldin volcano, located near the center of Unimak Island in the eastern Aleutian Islands, is a spectacular symmetric cone with a base diameter of approximately 10 miles (16 km). A small summit crater typically emits a noticeable steam plume with occasional small amounts of ash. Shishaldin is one of the most active volcanoes in the Aleutian volcanic arc, erupting atleast 28 times since 1775. Most of Shishaldin's eruptions have consisted of small ash and steam plumes, although the most recent eruption in April-May 1999 produced an ash column that reached a height of 45,000 ft above sea level.

 

http://hisz.rsoe.hu/alertmap/site/?pageid=event_desc&edis_id=VA-20140130-42509-USA

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Shishaldin volcano (Aleutian Islands, Alaska): new activity, alert level raised

Friday Jan 31, 2014 09:32 AM | BY: T
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MODIS hot spot at Shishaldin volcano

The Alaska Volcano Observatory raised the Aviation Color Code of the volcano to YELLOW and the Alert Level to ADVISORY yesterday morning. Increased steaming was seen and satellite data showed a new thermal anomaly in the summit crater indicating a new hot surface, possibly from a new lava dome. The last activity at the volcano dates back to 2004.

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Sinabung volcano (Sumatra) - series of pyroclastic flows kill at least 14 people

Saturday Feb 01, 2014 15:47 PM | BY: T
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Ash plume of the deadly pyroclastic flow on the SE flank this morning

Sad news today: the volcano claimed its first victims this morning due to a direct effect of the eruption. At least 14 people were reported killed and 3 others severely bunt by one or two moderately large pyroclastic flows this morning. 3 more people are still reported missing.

According to Jakarta Post all fatalities that could be located so far had occurred in Suka Meriah village, which is located within a 3-kilometer radius of the volcano, thus in well in the exclusion zone. However, during the past days, enforcement of the exclusion zone had been loosened, and according to some sources, people had even be formally allowed to return to their homes,- a fatal decision for some.

Among the fatalities were several school children and students.

Rescue operations were affected by fears of new pyroclastic flows.

 

 

According to BNPB spokesman Sutopo Purwo Nugroho, there were three eruptions: the first eruption occurred at 10:30 a.m. (local time) and lasted for eight-and-a-half-minutes, generating a 4.5 km long pyroclastic flow, while the second followed immediately after at 10:38 a.m. and lasted just over four minutes, followed by a third one at 11:27 a.m. for 84 seconds.

It is not exactly clear where the pyroclastic flow originated, from explosions at the summit, collapse of the summit lava dome, or from (partial collapse) on the viscous flow that had recently been emplaced. The latter two scenarios are the more likely ones. Webcam images don't show much detail except a dense ash plume engulfing the southern slope.

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Kavachi undersea volcano (Solomon Islands) erupts again

Saturday Feb 01, 2014 10:02 AM | BY: T
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The discolored water plume from Kavachi volcano (NASA Earth Observatory image by Jesse Allen and Robert Simmon, using EO-1 ALI data from the NASA EO-1 team. Caption by Robert Simmon)
 

A submarine eruption is likely occurring at the submerged volcano. A NASA satellite image from 29 Jan shows a plume of discolored sea water swirling and drifting from the location of the volcano. The discoloration is likely from suspended volcanic sediments (the fragmented lava) and gasses.

Kavachi is an undersea volcano on the southern edge of the Solomon Islands in the western Pacific Ocean. It erupted dozens of times in the 20th century, often breaking the water surface, only to be eroded back below the water line within a few months.

Whether the new eruption will break the surface and create another new island remains to be seen. Directly above the undersea peak, a bright patch is visible that suggests vigorously churning water—but there is no sign that the eruption has broken the surface. (NASA)

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Volcanic activity worldwide 1 Feb 2014: Tungurahua, Sinabung, Kavachi

Saturday Feb 01, 2014 22:09 PM |
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Ash plume of the deadly pyroclastic flow on the SE flank this morning
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The discolored water plume from Kavachi volcano (NASA Earth Observatory image by Jesse Allen and Robert Simmon, using EO-1 ALI data from the NASA EO-1 team. Caption by Robert Simmon)
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Ash eruption at Tungurahua volcano this evening

Sinabung (Sumatra, Indonesia): Sad news today: the volcano claimed its first victims this morning due to a direct effect of the eruption. At least 14 people were reported killed and 3 others severely bunt by one or two moderately large pyroclastic flows this morning. 3 more people are still reported missing.

According to Jakarta Post all fatalities that could be located so far had occurred in Suka Meriah village, which is located within a 3-kilometer radius of the volcano, thus in well in the exclusion zone. However, during the past days, enforcement of the exclusion zone had been loosened, and according to some sources, people had even be formally allowed to return to their homes,- a fatal decision for some.

 

 

 

Tungurahua (Ecuador): Activity continues at the volcano. Several relatively strong ash emissions occurred during the past 12 hours, producing ash plumes rising 2-3 km above the volcano to estimated 26,000 ft (8 km) altitude and drifting SE:

The volcano observatory reports frequent small explosions and visible incandescent material.

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The death toll from an Indonesian volcano that has been rumbling for months rose to 16 Sunday after rescuers found another charred corpse and a critically injured college student died in a hospital, officials said. Mount Sinabung erupted again Saturday just a day after authorities allowed thousands of villagers who had been evacuated to return to its slopes, saying volcanice activity was decreasing. Rescuers found 14 bodies and rescued three people with burn wounds, said National Disaster Mitigation Agency spokesman Sutopo Purwo Nugroho. Rescue efforts resumed Sunday and rescuers found another body about three kilometres (two miles) from the volcano's peak, said Lt. Col. Asep Sukarna, who led the operation. Another resident, a 24-year-old college student died in an intensive care unit, said an official at the Efarina Etaham hospital. Among the dead were a local television journalist and four high-school students and their teacher who were visiting the mountain to see the eruptions up close, Nugroho said. At least three other people were injured and authorities fear the death toll will rise. Sinabung in western Sumatra has been erupting for four months. Authorities had evacuated more than 30,000 people, housing them in cramped tents, schools and public buildings, but many were desperate to return to check on homes and farms.

 

http://hisz.rsoe.hu/alertmap/site/?pageid=event_update_read&edis_id=VE-20140105-42167-IDN&uid=14656

 

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Ecuador's Geophysics Institute is reporting that the Tungurahua volcano has erupted three times, spewing ash and lava in what it called an important increase in activity. The institute said that two moderate explosions on Saturday were followed by a third of greater size, and pyroclastic flow stretched 500 meters down its flank. The blasts created a 5-mile (8-kilometer) column of ash above the volcano, which is located 84 miles (135 kilometers) southeast of the capital, Quito. Authorities said the lava reached the lower part of a ravine called Achupashal, blocking a route to a tourist site called Banos. Tungurahua is 16,480 feet (5,023 meters) high and has been active since 1999. An outburst in 2006 left four dead and two missing.

 

http://hisz.rsoe.hu/alertmap/site/?pageid=event_update_read&edis_id=VE-20140130-42508-ECU&uid=14655

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Volcano Eruption in Ecuador on Thursday, 30 January, 2014 at 23:14 (11:14 PM) UTC.

 

updated Monday, 03 February, 2014 at 19:28 UTC

 

Activity at the volcano continues at similar levels as yesterday with intermittent small to moderately large explosions, producing ash plumes of up to 4 km height. IGPEN released an illustrated summary of the volcano's activity during the past days including the attached image sequence showing the violent explosion on 1 Feb that generated large pyroclastic flows due to the collapse of the eruption column. Yesterday, small explosions and ash emissions were recorded. At 10:40 local time, an episode of harmonic tremor with a deep origin was recorded, suggesting that more magma might be rising from depth. Last night and this morning, there were at least 10 explosions of moderate size which could be heard as heavy gunfire and lasted several minutes. Some were so intense that they could be heard several kilometers away. An ash column rose about 4 km above the summit during the largest explosion and drifted northwards. IGPEN writes that the most likely scenario for the near future are continuing discrete explosions of similar size as yesterday and today, accompanied with strong ash emissions, causing ash fall and possibly pyroclastic flows. A second most likely scenario is that activity declines at the surface while internal pressure builds up towards another major explosion. Both scenarios involve a high risk for anyone in the areas close to the volcano, in particular low-lying areas in and around valleys draining from the mountain, at several (5-10) kilometers distance. Potentially heavy ash falls can be expected in areas lying in the main wind direction and is likely to seriously affect agriculture, livestock and of course the health of the people exposed to the ash. Furthermore, ash plumes from the current activity are a serious hazard to air traffic in the area.

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Volcanic activity worldwide 3 Feb 2014: Kelud, Ubinas, San Miguel, Fuego, Sinabung

Monday Feb 03, 2014 17:57 PM |
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The new lava dome of Kelut volcano in Nov 2007
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Number of seismic events by category until 31 Jan (VSI)
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Tremor amplitude at San Miguel volcano over the past weeks (MARN)

Kelud (East Java): (2 Feb) The alert level of the volcano was raised today from 1 ("normal") to 2 ("Waspada", "watch") on a scale of 1-4. During the second half of 2014, a strong increase in seismic activity and a 5.5 deg temperature increase of the crater lake water had been detected.

The number of shallow volcanic earthquakes rose from averages of 1-2 per day to approx 10 per day during 20-31 Jan and climbed to more than 100 events since the start of February alone. This might indicate a shallow intrusion is taking place and could lead to a new eruption. VSI recommends not to approach the crater within 2 km radius.

The last eruption of Kelut was in Oct-Nov 2007, when a new lava dome grew within the crater lake.

Sinabung (Sumatra, Indonesia): The activity has not much changed, but continues to show an overall decreasing trend. No significant explosions or pyroclastic flows seem to have occurred over the past 2 days.

VSI published a graph showing the seismic activity until 31 Jan, which indicates that the number of seismic events related to the rise of new magma (hybrid earthquakes and tremor) has generally been decreasing over the past weeks. This corresponds to what can be observed visually (when weather permits clear views).

Fuego (Guatemala): After a short peak of activity, the volcano has been calmer today. INSIVUMEH reported weak explosions with ash plumes rising to 600-700 m above the crater, but does not mention any lava flow.

San Miguel (El Salvador): The volcano has not erupted again, but shows increased signs of unrest. Since late January, the volcano's seismic activity has been rising significantly. MARN detected a swarms of earthquakes at very shallow 1 km depth beneath the SW flank, while a smaller number of quakes occured at approx. 6 km depth beneath the summit of the volcano.

Scientists believe that this reflects internal pressure increase, which in turn could be the result of new intruding magma. In other words, a new eruption at the volcano in a near future is a scenario that should be taken into account.

Ubinas (Peru): Two small earthquake swarms occurred in January, the latest bulletin of the Peru's Geophysical Institute (IGP) reports. The first one happened between 8-9 Jan, and the second and stronger one on 25 Jan. In addition, bluish degassing (SO2, an indicator of the presence of magma) was observed.

However, IGP mentions that these signs of unrest are still weak and could be the result of increased ground-water infiltration and not likely mean a new eruption of Ubinas is nearby.

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The Chiltepe Peninsula, highlighted in this photograph by an astronaut on the International Space Station, extends into Lake Managua in west-central Nicaragua. The peninsula was formed from part of a large ignimbrite shield, a geologic structure created when mostly low-density materials (such as pumice) are ejected during violent, explosive eruptions. Ignimbrite deposits are most commonly laid down during large pyroclastic flows, gravity-driven mixtures of rock, ash, and volcanic gases. Ignimbrite shields form through successive flows over geologic time.

The Apoyeque caldera—which is filled with a 2.8 kilometer (1.7 mile) wide and 400 meter (1,300 foot) deep lake—dominates the center of the Chiltepe Peninsula. Geological evidence indicates that Apoyeque last erupted around 50 BCE (plus or minus 100 years). The Laguna Xiloa maar—a volcanic crater formed by the explosive interaction of magma and groundwater—is located to the southeast of Apoyeque and is also filled with a lake. (Note that north is to the left in this photo.) Laguna Xiloa last erupted approximately 6,100 years ago.

More recently, a swarm of small earthquakes was detected near Apoyeque in 2012. These seismic swarms, when detected in volcanically active areas, can indicate movement of magma prior to an eruption. The capital city of Managua, not visible in the image, is located approximately 15 kilometers (9 miles) to the southeast of Apoyeque, while the town of Bosques de Xiloa is considerably closer (approximately 4 kilometers, or 2.5 miles).

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http://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2014/02/04/19-more-volcanoes-alert.html

 

The government has raised the status on another 19 volcanoes in the country to alert level — the second-highest category — in the wake of the Mount Sinabung eruption in North Sumatra that killed 16 people on Saturday.

Besides the 19 new additions, three volcanos have been on high alert status since last year. They include Lokon and Karangetang in North Sulawesi and Rokatenda in East Nusa Tenggara.

The National Disaster Mitigation Agency (BNPB) issued the raised status on Monday for the 19 volcanoes, which are scattered across the archipelago, but has yet to call for the evacuation of populations living nearby.

The 19 volcanoes are Kelud, Ijen, Bromo, Semeru and Raung in East Java; Lewotobi Perempuan in East Nusa Tenggara; Ibu, Gamkonora, Dukono and Gamalama in North Maluku; Soputan in North Sulawesi; Sangeang Api in West Nusa Tenggara; Papandayan in West Java; Dieng in Central Java; Seulewah Agam in Aceh; Talang and Marapi in West Sumatra; Anak Krakatau in Banten; and Kerinci in Jambi.

Indonesia is among the world’s most seismically active countries, situated on the Pacific Ring of Fire, an arc of volcanoes and fault lines encircling the Pacific Basin. The 19 volcanoes are among about 127 active volcanoes in Indonesia.

Mt. Sinabung has been sporadically erupting since September.

Though the alert level for the 19 volcanoes had been raised, Sutopo called on nearby residents not to panic.

“Volcanoes erupt in stages, they won’t suddenly erupt. Their activity can be categorized from normal to waspada [alert] to siaga [high alert] to awas [danger, the highest level],†he said on Monday.

He said that the BNPB was now keeping an eye on Mount Kelud, whose status was raised to alert following intensified volcanic activity.

The BNPB decision to raise the status of Mt. Kelud had triggered panic among local residents.

Local officials in Kediri have issued a warning to people living close to Mt. Kelud to stay outside a 2-kilometer radius set by the The Center for Volcanology and Geological Disaster Mitigation (PVMBG).

 

 

 

 

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http://www.volcanodiscovery.com/indonesia.html

 

list of volcanoes in Indonesia

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Volcanic activity worldwide 4 Feb 2014: Etna, Barren Island, Tungurahua, Sinabung, Nishino-shima

Tuesday Feb 04, 2014 18:16 PM |
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The new lava flow and an ash emission from the New SE crater
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A hot spot on Nishino-Shima island and its location in the western Pacific
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Pyroclastic flow at Sinabung yesterday afternoon
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Image sequence (both thermal and visual) of the main explosion on 1 Feb, showing the collapse of the eruption column into pyroclastic flows (IGPEN)
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Ash column rising from Tungurahua this morning
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Gas and ash plume from Barren Island today (MODIS/Terra, NASA)

Etna (Sicily, Italy): After a short pause with likely no (or almost no) eruptive activity during 1-2 Feb, the volcano started renewed lava effusion from the fissure vent at the eastern foot of the New SE crater yesterday, followed by the onset of weak explosive activity(ash emissions) from the New SE crater this afternoon.

So far, this activity has been very weak and the lava flow progressed only a few 100 m. The tremor signal is low and doesn't show a clear trend at the moment.

Nishino-shima (Volcano Islands): The eruption on the now merged Nishino-Shima and Niishima islands continues. A hot spot is visible on current MODIS data.

Hopefully, new imagery will be available from the Japanese Coast guard soon.

Sinabung (Sumatra, Indonesia): The eruption of the volcano continues with little changes. During the past 2 days (see video below), there have been a number of smaller and occasional medium-sized explosions/dome collapse events that produced pyroclastic flows that reach up to 2-3 km length (at 13:50 yesterday and 07:50 this morning (local times).

 

 

According to local news, a total of 170 search and rescue personnel had been employed during the past days, but still could not find one of the still missing victims of Saturday's fatal pyroclastic flow. The official death toll from the eruption has reached at least 15 (or 16 if the still missing is taken into account), plus two seriously wounded victims. Most of the fatalities were young students and schoolchildren who apparently came as volcano tourists and as part of a Christian class to provide assistance to local people. The other victims were 3 residents of Sukameriah and one from Kabanjahe village.

Rescuers found 8 abandoned (and destroyed) motorcycles, 1 Acer laptop bag, a bag with a handy cam and 2 helmets, an article mentions. Operations in the affected areas with partially still hot deposits, abundant ash and the risk of being in the path of new pyroclastic flows render the rescue operation dangerous and difficult.

Tungurahua (Ecuador): (3 Feb) Activity at the volcano continues at similar levels as yesterday with intermittent small to moderately large explosions, producing ash plumes of up to 4 km height.

IGPEN released an illustrated summary of the volcano's activity during the past days including the attached image sequence showing the violent explosion on 1 Feb that generated large pyroclastic flows due to the collapse of the eruption column.

.

Yesterday, small explosions and ash emissions were recorded. At 10:40 local time, an episode of harmonic tremor with a deep origin was recorded, suggesting that more magma might be rising from depth.

Last night and this morning, there were at least 10 explosions of moderate size which could be heard as heavy gunfire and lasted several minutes. Some were so intense that they could be heard several kilometers away. An ash column rose about 4 km above the summit during the largest explosion and drifted northwards.

...4 Feb:

Activity remains elevated. The volcano emits a constant ash and steam column rising up to 4-5 km, and has strong individual explosions with loud detonations like cannon-shots.

Depending on the wind direction, ash falls, in parts heavy, have been occurring in particular in the sectors north of the volcano and reached as far as the capital Quito.

Barren Island (Indian Ocean): Intermittent eruptive activity continues on the small remote island next to the Andaman island group. A small steam and ash plume and a thermal hot spot can be seen on today's and yesterday's satellite images.

Without (the rare) direct observations (usually by Indian navy), it is impossible to know exactly what type of activity is going on at the moment. It could be intermittent strombolian-type explosions, and/or lava flows or even the formation of a small temporary lava lake.

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