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    Wellington, NZ, about 120m ASL.

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  1. At Cropp River, on the west coast of the South Island, 1086 mm was recorded in 48 hours. For perspective, Christchurch, which is about 100 miles east of the site, recorded <1 mm in the same period. This is enormously larger than any of the UK's 48, 72 or 96 hour records (all of which are a measly 400-500 mm). It's not really that far off Britain's highest monthly rainfall total of 1396 mm! New Zealand's calendar month record is currently at 2927 mm (or 3813 mm if you allow for any 31 days period). Since March has had a very long dry spell, Cropp may not be able to beat its current monthly record.
  2. We just passed the Perihelion, when Earth is closest to the sun. This is when NZ records its highest UV values. Wellington is hitting 12 each day now. As you can see, for about 4-5 hours every sunny day from November - February, the sun in central NZ is stronger than has ever been recorded in the UK. It's probably more like 5-6 hours and October - March in northern NZ. Even in early November in northern NZ, the peak UV index is already higher than has ever been recorded in the UK. Effectively, a 25C day in NZ does not feel like a 25C day in the UK. One reason is the sun (you cannot really "enjoy the sun" in the same way you might in the UK); another reason is the ability to get higher dewpoints. But that depends on location, and NZ is also capable of getting lower dewpoints than the UK in decent foehn wind situations.
  3. Does anyone have any functioning AAM or torque monitoring sites anymore? All the usual suspects stopped working around June. Thanks.
  4. The New Zealand Meteorological Service offers a Master of Meteorology as part of its trainee meteorologist course: https://about.metservice.com/our-company/careers-and-job-opportunities/trainee-meteorologist/ It might be complicated without an NZ/Aus passport or an NZ work visa though.
  5. There is a live thread here: https://www.stuff.co.nz/national/101542667/live-cyclone-gita-nears-new-zealand Some locations in the upper South Island received 50mm of rain in an hour yesterday. In just 18 hours, Kaikoura recorded one third of it's typical annual rainfall! Westport had easterly gales, gusting 60 knots. Westport is a pretty wild, windy place but is not accustomed to easterly gales - they tend to be very damaging. There's also lots of snow to 1000m or less in the lower South Island.
  6. Cyclone Gita last week moved directly over Tonga's main island, incredibly causing no fatalities. It's still classified as a TC at 33S, though will transition soon. It crosses New Zealand on Tuesday, bringing extreme weather. As is often the case with these former cyclones, it brings up cold air the time of year. Below is some GFS guidance showing the incredible 850hPa temperature contrasts: 23C in the warm core of Gita, and 0C just 500 miles south. A 23C 850hPa temperature gradient from the north to the south of the South Island!
  7. A quick look at the ECMWF model for Monday evening suggests that there could be a period of snow to lowish levels ahead of the approaching occluded front. It may turn to rain behind it though for low lying areas. The contours are a forecast snow level which dynamically changes based on how heavy the model precipitation is (heavier snow can penetrate closer to the ground). The front moves through after dark. A separate feature moves through Scotland on the weekend bringing a convincing signal for snow to low levels in the west. Imagery ECMWF via MetraWeather.
  8. The temperature news from the latest EC32: Below average for 4th - 10th, then above average thereafter. It also makes all of northern Europe, eastern Europe and half of Russia above average as well.
  9. Not a personal criticism but I find this, along with almost all discussions of AAM to be a bit "hand wavey". I don't understand many of the mechanisms behind AAM and how it affects or is affected by the weather and no explanations I've seen quite cut it. I would ask: 1) WHY does it aid to push the PV to lower latitudes? What's the mechanism? 2) HOW does it split the jet? Why would an increase in AAM split the jet?
  10. Why does an increase in AAM help disrupt the polar vortex?
  11. Using the mean along with well calibrated probabilities is quite sound in many situations. The mean smooths things out, the probabilities tell you about what's been removed by the smoothing. If you care about cold spells, you can do things like showing the mean and % of members showing 850hPa T < xC. Even 5% will then provide you with a hint. Cascading probabilities of multiple thresholds and parameters then give you a pretty good view of the ensemble. My only wariness of stamp maps themselves is that you are overloading the human with information and they may sometimes filter it out subconsciously. Clustering is probably superior IMO, unless you are looking at a very specific feature, in which case stamp maps are the king (I remember seeing ECMWF stamps for a famous low in 1999 or something like that, it was very interesting). Bad times to use the mean are if you have very distinct possible outcomes, with the mean simply provided a physically meaningless and non-representative "MOR solution". In this case it's very dangerous, and misleading. But it's also rare.
  12. This is just hyperbole. The meteorological (both operational and research) consensus is strongly in favour of ensembles. They are not crystal balls but they are essential to forecasting. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/wea.2069/epdf " Practical experience and statistical verifications indicate that the average (or median) output from the ensemble is indeed the superior provider of ‘the most likely outcome’. The spread around this average tells how much trust can be put into this output, and, converted into probabilities, can warn about high-impact weather developments. It would therefore be quite possible to base the entire weather forecast guidance on the EPS. "
  13. I had a look at the ECMWF Extreme Forecast Index for temperature in Days 10-15. Not even a hint of cold even over Eastern Europe and Russia. I found that pretty surprising, it looks cold even on the ensemble but maybe it's going to be relatively cold compared with now, but still fairly nea average....
  14. That's probably a sound strategy in some situations but not in all situations. The difficulty is in knowing what kind of situation it is to begin with
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